Table of Contents
What is PGT?
There’s a ton of scientific stuff that goes on when you opt for an IVF. We are here to break it down into simpler words. Before your embryos are transferred to your uterus, they have their chromosomes checked for abnormalities by using a technique called preimplantation genetic testing or PGT test. One or more cells from each embryo are taken for genetic testing. Only the embryos that are genetically sound are transferred to your uterus, where they bind to the lining.
And that’s how you create a little human!
Now, What Kinds of Genetic Tests are Available?
A disease-carrying gene can be examined in genetic tests in a PGT testing with the embryos. Additionally, it will indicate whether the embryo is disease-free even if it carries the disease. An unaffected carrier is someone who can spread the disease to their children but does not personally exhibit any symptoms.
Another type of genetic test that can look at the chromosomes is the karyotype test which uses amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. This test determines whether the fetus has more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes. Disorders like Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Trisomy 13 can be caused by having too many or too few chromosomes. Translocations, or out-of-order chromosomes, can impede growth or function, and this test can also look for them.
What Exactly is PGS or Preimplantation Genetic Screening?
An embryo undergoes chromosomal abnormality testing as part of PGS. Numerous embryos with chromosomal abnormalities will either not come to term or end up in a miscarriage. Some of a man’s sperm or a woman’s eggs will have chromosomal abnormalities. Numerous factors, including the parent’s age and health history, can influence the percentage of abnormal embryos.
How are Genetic Tests Carried Out?
During an embryo’s growth in the IVF laboratory, one or more cells are taken from the embryo and sent for genetic testing. Various methods are used at various stages of the testing such as
- Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
- Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
To improve accuracy, make them easier to use, and provide more information, techniques are constantly evolving and changing. More frequently, genetic testing is carried out using the more recent methods of genome sequencing and microarray.
Who Should Undergo a PGD or PGS Testing?
PGD is for people who have a known genetic disorder or are carriers of one. People who
- have had multiple failed fertility treatments
- are older
- have ovaries that don’t work as expected
- have had multiple miscarriages
may benefit from PGS. PGS can also be done for personal reasons by some couples. Anyone with any interest at all in PGD or PGS ought to talk with a fertility expert so the method and any options can be examined.
A Final Word on PGT Testing
PGT testing is an important diagnostic tool to prevent the transmission of any known genetic disorder. Additionally, it aids populations at high risk of bearing certain genetic aberrations in their offspring. A PGT test aids in the prevention of the birth of a syndromic child in cases of advanced maternal age and lessens the trauma of multiple unsuccessful IVF cycles and early miscarriages.
The child is shielded from inherited monogenic disorders by PGT-M. PGT-M, which is based on the idea of a savior sibling, can be used to treat some hematological disorders in children. To provide patients with the best outcomes, PGT technology ought to be incorporated into ART. However, prudent use of this technology and awareness of its drawbacks are essential.
Tap here for more information on IVF and related articles.